Thursday, August 24, 2006

Leadership Projections

One interesting thing about leadership races is that you never know for sure how strong the respective candidates are doing. The media loves to go on about momentum and anoint frontrunners but the truth is that few journalists are really plugged in to the inner workings of the Liberal Party. What decides these races is not blog endorsements or the number of fluff pieces in national media but the number of Liberals who back each candidate.

While there were a lot of news stories about membership sales in July, there hasn’t been any sort of number crunching to try and gauge the relative support of different candidates. So, partly out of interest, and partly because I think it’s useful to have an idea of where the leadership camps sit, I decided to take a crack at predicting first ballot support for the different candidates. This took a lot of time and effort, so please be gentle.


Right off the bat, I’ll say that there are obviously major flaws with the methodology I used because a lot of factors are very hard to objectively quantify and a lot of the numbers I’m using are best guesses. I’m not saying that what I’m projecting is what will happen at the delegate selection meetings but I would be confident to put these predictions up against any other predictions anyone wants to make (so if anyone wants to make a friendly wager, I’m game).

The goal is to predict the number of delegates each candidate will have vote for them on the first ballot. Right off the bat, we know that roughly 15% of the delegates are ex-officio. So, using the wikipedia endorsement page, I’ve determined the percentage of declared ex-officio delegates each candidate has in their corner and assigned these numbers to that 15%. While wikipedia isn’t perfect, after this CTV news story appeared, it’s obvious that almost all of the campaigns went to the site and added the names of their supporters to boost their numbers. So I’m fairly confident this will give us a good idea of ex-officio support.

The other 85% of the delegates are the tricky ones to determine. These will be selected proportionally, with Liberals on the membership lists as of July 4th eligible to vote. There will be two types of Liberals on these lists – new sign-ups and existing Liberals. New sign-ups are the individuals who were signed up by campaigns in recent months for this leadership race. Existing members are people who were already on the membership list.

Both officially and unofficially, many campaigns and Liberal provincial associations have released their numbers for new sign-ups. There was also significant media coverage about this in July which you can read here, here, and here. Using these numbers, blog buzz, and what I’ve heard, I’m able to predict another percentage of the delegates. For example, in Ontario there were 35000 old members and 45000 new sign ups. Reports are that Michael Ignatieff signed up 10000 new members in Ontario. Therefore, I can predict that this will give Ignatieff 10000/80000, of Ontario’s elected delegates. Once this is done for all the candidates, I will have assigned 45000/80000, or 56% of Ontario’s elected delegates to various campaigns.

So the question now becomes how to assign the other 44% of Ontario’s elected delegates, right?

After making phone calls and asking for feedback, I can get a general sense of where existing support is, but that comes across as fairly subjective on my part. So in my formula for estimating existing support, I’m only basing 1/5th of the total for each candidate on the perceived support the candidates have in that province. The other 4/5th I assigned based on a formula as follows (in each case, this is done as a percentage of the total. Bob Rae has raised 30% of the total money of all camps together, so he gets 30% * 20%, or 6% of this total).

20%: Money raised (since, like it or not, money is important in these things)
20%: Number of donations (this is a sign of grass roots support)
20%: MP endorsements (MPs can have a big influence on their ridings)
10%: Media mentions (I simply did a google news search for each candidate and used the number of stories that came up)
10%: Wikipedia endorsements (under the assumption that these are all somewhat important people with some influence)
10%: Blogger endorsements (since blogs give a good sense of what Liberals who follow the news closely think)
10%: Website (I just used Blue Blogging Soapbox’s most recent website rankings. If nothing else, it might give a sense of how good a communications team each campaign has)

The first three factors I weighed heavier because the numbers a lot less subjective (warning: these are the month old fundraising numbers - I'll update within the next few weeks with the new numbers). Media is important, but just counting news stories doesn’t give you an idea of how positive the news is, so I couldn’t bring myself to weight it for more than 10%.

Using this system, I was able to assign “existing member support”. Obviously this isn’t a perfect system, but I think it does give an idea of who has the momentum, air game, and support on the ground among long time Liberals.

Province by Province

If you’d like to see the numbers I used, click here. The following is merely a brief outline of the province by province support for those who think this post has already gone on way too long. I'll start out west, to alleviate alienation:

BC: Kennedy was first in new sales, followed by Rae, Dion, Volpe, and Ignatieff. The existing membership seems to be split between Kennedy, Rae, Dion, and Ignatieff. Public Eye Online has been very good at releasing specific numbers for this region so I’m very confident in the ones I used for the front running candidates.

AB: In a province where the membership list more than tripled, Kennedy was first in new sales. Ignatieff, Volpe, Rae, and Dion all had good sale totals and Scott Brison has a presence in some ridings. My sense is the existing grassroots membership is split between Kennedy, Dion, and Ignatieff, although both Brison and Rae have some very influential supporters.

Sask: Bob Rae led the way in new sales , doing very well in aboriginal communities. Kennedy was second and while Dion had nothing before, it seems about 200 of Orchard’s followers signed up, which will no doubt help him. Ignatieff didn’t sign up many new members but has good support among the existing Liberals. As is the case in Alberta, Martha Hall Findlay actually has a bit of support on the ground, thanks to her rural bus trips.

Manitoba: This is certainly Dryden’s strongest province. I’ve heard mixed reports about who, between him and Rae, sold more memberships but those two were certainly 1-2. Ignatieff was third in new forms sold, but probably has the most existing support (followed by the other two). Kennedy comes in fourth in his native province. Of note, Maurizio Bevilacqua performed well here, and in all the prairie provinces – I’ve moved his forms to the “existing members” list because I think it would be really rash to assume they’ll all follow him to Bob Rae. (especially given this)

Ontario: Ignatieff and Kennedy were tops for new sales, with Volpe in the mix. The next tier was Rae, Dion and Dryden. Another tier bellow them was Brison and Maurizio. It should be noted that the straw poll among Ontario Young Liberals at Spring Fling had Ignatieff and Kennedy neck and neck, with Dion a distant third and no one else on the radar. While this was just a poll among youth, a third of the delegates at the convention will be youth and there are over 200 delegates coming from campus clubs to Montreal.

Quebec: Volpe raised eyebrows with his Quebec recruitments numbers, although the figure of 4,400 new forms sold has been attacked as a dramatic inflation of his support due to their concentration in Montreal and questions about how loyal those Liberals are to Volpe. Ignatieff was a strong second, Dion was third, and Rae was fourth. Those three are all doing well among existing members too.

Atlantic Canada: I’ll be the first to admit that my Atlantic numbers are far from exact and I hope to be able to refine them over the next few weeks. The main problem here is that there were very few new sign-ups in comparison to the existing membership lists. Brison most likely won his home province (although some say Ignatieff did) and has decent support across the region. The top three in PEI are Ignatieff, Kennedy and Rae. New Brunswick is similar. The Toronto Star has Kennedy leading in Newfoundland, but other reports have Volpe, Ignatieff, Rae and Dryden all doing well there.

Territories: Unfortunately, I’ve ignored these three ridings due to a lack of information.

Click here for the detailed results page and for how these numbers were calculated

The Ex-Officio support breaks down as follows:
Ignatieff 69
Rae 50
Kennedy 49
Dion 46
Dryden 34
Brison 29
Bennett 8
Volpe 7
Fry 2

The New Membership Sale Support Breaks Down as Follows (this has been weighted based on the relative delegates for each province and the ratio of new sales to existing members):

Iggy 20.5%
Kennedy 20.5%
Volpe 17.7%
Rae 15.9%
Dion 11.6%
Dryden 6.7%
Brison 4.9%
MHF 1.2%
Bennett 0.8%
Fry 0.2%

Click here to take a look at the data used to calculate relative strength of existing candidates among existing members.

Here’s how it breaks down for existing members once existing strength is considered (again, weighted by relative delegates for province and ratio of new sales to existing members):

Iggy 25.1%
Kennedy 17.1%
Dion 16.6%
Rae 15.4%
Dryden 9.4%
Brison 9.0%
Volpe 2.9%
Bennett 2.1%
MHF 1.9%
Fry 0.5%

Finally, the grand total of estimated first ballot support:

Michael Ignatieff 22.9%
Gerard Kennedy 18.4%
Bob Rae 15.8%
Stephane Dion 14.4%
Joe Volpe 8.8%
Ken Dryden 8.6%
Scott Brison 7.4%
Carolyn Bennett 1.7%
Martha Hall Findlay 1.6%
Hedy Fry 0.4%


Obviously this isn’t a perfect system, but I don’t think it’s skewed to favour or punish a given candidate disproportionately. And, because of my Kennedy bias, I went out of my way to really estimate his numbers on the low end of what I’d heard whenever possible.

I’ll be updating this every couple weeks from now until the end of September, so feel free to e-mail me with feedback on the estimates I’ve made. The percentages will also shift as more endorsements become public and more up to date financial numbers come forward. I should also stress that I’ve been working on this over the past week, so some of my totals from the wikipedia page and google news search might be a few days out of date (as are the fundraising numbers).

As for the results themselves, they confirm what I’d suspected. Ignatieff is still the frontrunner and will be in first place on ballot one, but it won't be an insurmountale lead. If he is only around 25% on the first ballot, that means we’re heading for a long night of voting on December 2nd. Despite a lack of positive media focus lately, Gerard Kennedy should be in second place after ballot 1. I’m personally not too worried about the media’s lack of attention because that means he’ll be perceived to have a lot of momentum after the delegate selection meetings finish. But I do think it’s ridiculous that he’s at times being ignored when the front runners are listed.

As one might expect, the only other candidates over 10% are Rae (in third) and Dion (in fourth). Despite lackluster new sale numbers in Ontario for these two, they both did very well on the formula I created to estimate existing support and I think I was fairly generous with Dion’s numbers, due to his perceived momentum. Rae might also move a bit higher if he can corral some of Bevilacqua’s supporters his way.

The next tier of candidates includes Volpe, Dryden, and Brison. I’ll admit to be a bit surprised by this since I’d expected Volpe to do better, given his high sale numbers. Perhaps I was a bit harsh in my assessment of his existing support, but if the system I used was weighted against him, that will merely make up for the loss of Jimmy K. Because a lot of the new forms were Karygiannis' and not Volpe’s, it’s going to be tough for Joe to crack the top 4.

Unfortunately, the three female candidates seem to have little support. These numbers might be off by a fair amount because I really have no sale information on the low tier candidates. Carolyn Bennett could have been anywhere from 0 to 2000 forms in Ontario for all I know. I also strongly suspect that MHF is doing better than these rankings indicate. She just seems to have a certain je ne sais quoi which shows up in support, but not in these rankings. Also, I get the sense that a few ex-officios might give her their first ballot vote to make a statement before moving on to their preferred candidate.

In summation, this is far from an exact science, but I'm fairly confident that it provides a very good indication of what we should expect on the first ballot in Montreal. And, judging from the numbers I've projected, there are, without a doubt, four candidates who could realistically win this thing.


  • Kennedy is first in new sales in BC, but I've read elsewhere that most of those sales were in three ridings, so you may be over estimating his BC support.

    Most of the older, life-long Liberals I've talked to say they don't have much interest in the leadership race. This bodes well for someone with a younger, dedicated following.

    By Blogger nuna d. above, at 2:15 p.m.  

  • That's a pretty interesting prediction. I think it's pretty accurate, the only question is where do we go from there? Does Ignatieff have room to grow? Can Kennedy catch up? Where will Dion be left?

    Either way, its a great starting point.

    By Blogger Zac, at 2:18 p.m.  

  • Kudos to you CG for having the stamina to wade through all that information. I think that your final delagate tally on the first ballot is more or less correct although I think that Bob Rae will be number two.

    I don't want to say anything negative or positive about your methodology as I am neither a pollster nor a statistician.

    I do however want to say this: Politics is more than just a game of math -- I'm sure you agree. Politics is about timing, instinct, "gut feeling" and of course relationships and paybacks.

    As an example, I have attended a few Michael Ignatieff fundraisers and actually did some work for him on his campaign to become MP. I have donated to him. I will however not support him.

    Moreover given the world of Liberal Party politics I have attended some of his leadership fundraisers out of loyalty to his supporters and not Iggy himself. That's just the way the game is played and we all know that.

    Now we all know that thousands of people have beeen signed up as new members of the Liberal party. I suspect, if we're all being honest, that there are a few people -- just a very few I hope --who were signed up and they don't even know it. I am willing to bet a whole lot of money that there are many new Liberals who after paying their fee feel that they have done their duty and will probably not show up at the delagate selection meetings. This happens -- alot -- so I don't necessarily believe that the number of people signed up by each candidate will translate in an equal amount of support.

    I imagine that there a few Joe Volpe sign-ups who wouldn't want to be caught dead anywhere near the delegate selection meetings with a Volpe sticker plastered to their shirt.

    Anyway, these are just my two cents.

    Again good work.

    By Blogger Unknown, at 2:51 p.m.  

  • I wouold say those rankings are pretty close to accurate for first ballot. So given that Ignatieff has little room for growth, Rae even less and Volpe zero chance of growth, this makes the stock rise for Kennedy, Dion and Dryden. I believe that Dion and Dryden will take the lions share of second and third ballot support so then what happens is anyone's guess.

    22.5% even 32.5% is not enough for Ignatieff or Rae to go over the top. You either love 'em or you hate 'em. There's no in between for those guys. Vople, yeah whatever.

    By Blogger S.K., at 2:59 p.m.  

  • Awesome work CG. It's going to take some time to digest, but this is the first comprehensive look at first ballot strength by anyone, media included. Full kudos to you.

    It will be a long and tireless effort to keep this current given all of the variables and all of the information readers will now suddenly pour down your throat. (I get emails daily about changes that must be made to the Blogger Endorsement Page and the Caucus Endorsement Page.

    On that note, to start you off, you should know that the Wikipedia caucus support list is full of errors: Volpe is listed as having 6 MP endorsements (he has only 4), Dion with 7 but lists Warren Allmand as an MP (he retired in 1997), Ignatieff with 33 (he had 34 as of yesterday and some new announcements today).

    Another thought: add a link to this post right underneath your CalgaryGrit heading in your template so it doesn't get lost as you make additional posts.

    Thanks for this.


    By Blogger Ted Betts, at 3:33 p.m.  

  • I don't see any legitimate candidates collapsing into Kennedy or Dryden because of they fact that they've yet to demonstrate their ability to effectively communicate with 1/4 of the country. Dryden, also, is way too far behind everyone to mount a run for victory--- he's an also-ran these days.

    The only room for growth Gerard might have would be someone like Joe Volpe, who is, no doubt, a political albatross at this point. I don't know that the rank and file would be receptive to a serious candidate accepting Volpe's endorsement in any official capacity.

    Of course, Kennedy can relieve himself of all this neglect if he shows some chops in Québec City. Until that happens, however, the final ballot will feature Ignatieff and whomever, between Rae and Dion, is able to outlast the other and procure an endorsement (presuming Brison ends up where we all expect him to).

    Frankly, I think these rumours about internal party vitriol directed at Ignatieff are pure bullshit. Every candidate has folks out there who view them in an adversarial light. The fact that Iggy has such a strong contingent of caucus support shows he has impressed and is well liked by his colleagues. Personally, I hope to see Dion, Findlay, or a much-improved Kennedy at the helm of the party, but I wouldn't be unhappy with Michael Ignatieff as its leader either.

    Essentially, things have dissolved into a three man race, unless Kennedy has something up his sleeve.

    By Blogger andrewridgeley, at 3:38 p.m.  

  • Cerberus - I've got it all in a spreadsheet so I think it shouldn't be too hard to update the predictions as new data comes forward. Given that I weighted the fundraising numbers (for amount and number) fairly heavily I'll definitely have to get the numbers into there soon.

    By Blogger calgarygrit, at 3:46 p.m.  

  • The new fundraising numbers are wrong too. Dyden's is at least double what was reported.

    By Blogger S.K., at 3:50 p.m.  

  • Great job sifting through all that! A long night indeed, if your conclusions are accurate.

    By Blogger Steve V, at 4:22 p.m.  

  • Interesting break down. I think Scott's strongest area of growth will be at the actual convention. A lot of people will ask him to step down, but I disagree. He is a great public speaker and very good at one-on-one conversations which will really matter. I will stay with him as farthest as he can go... But without Manitoba, I don't think Dryden would go that far...

    By Blogger Joshua Fraser, at 4:27 p.m.  

  • CG,

    Great work! It's a good starting point based on the information available. Of course, it will probably fluctuate wildly between now and the convention.

    My sense is that Rae and Kennedy are reversed.

    I think it clearly shows the nomination will be won at the convention. The speeches, the delegate outreach, hospitality suites, candidate management, alliances, momentum, etc. will decide this thing. Funny isn't it? Months of hard work will mean nothing if you can't deliver a burnbarner of a speech or don't have your hospitality suite stocked with plenty of cold beer and beauties.

    By Blogger PlaidShirt, at 4:29 p.m.  

  • Who shows up and puts down their $995 will decide who wins. I think this favours long time federal Liberals with a dedicated support base. Even getting instant Liberals to delegate selection meetings is difficult far less to an expensive far away convention. Also early Dec. is a very bad time for University and College students, both financially and academically. I think there will be a lower turnout of youth than expected.

    By Blogger S.K., at 5:05 p.m.  

  • My comments here:

    By Anonymous Anonymous, at 5:29 p.m.  

  • Interesting, but you clearly have too much time on your hands.

    By Blogger daveberta, at 6:19 p.m.  

  • "Who shows up and puts down their $995 will decide who wins. I think this favours long time federal Liberals with a dedicated support base"

    And a dedicated pocketbook...

    By Blogger daveberta, at 6:20 p.m.  

  • I think that this more or less represents what a lot of people had been thinking will happen, though as mentioned it really comes down to who shows up.

    But what is really interesting is that, below Dion, there is barely 28% of remaining delegates, which means that even if all those that leave on the early ballots went to Iggy, it's unlikely he could become leader without the support of one of the other top 4.

    By Blogger an Mike Powell, at 7:07 p.m.  

  • Ignatieff and Rae are tight though. You have to consider the possibility that if one of them is trailing he'd go over towards the other.

    By Blogger Chris, at 9:12 p.m.  

  • new membership sales will be key to electing delegates. the existing members before the race are split between all candidates. Everyone visits the same long time party members, and will get little results for them because they will split in so many ways. The new membership sales are the only ones who won't split, and will stay with their candidate. Rae and Dryden are way too far back to win. Ontario and Quebec new membership sales are Volpe, Kennedy, and Ignatieff. You can't miss the top 3 in both provinces and expect to win. doesnt matter if you win half the ridings in sask or manitoba. commendable effort going through so much info, and i do not have a better formula. but keep in mind fundraising loans. this is not a great indicator of strength, but is better when considered with funds raised. that will be Dion's toughest task. I predict Volpe, Kennedy and Dion will have 60% of the delegates between them, and one of them will win it, depending on backroom deals.

    By Blogger kenlister1, at 11:29 p.m.  

  • Nice work. Now that you've done the initial grunt work, it's much easier to tweak, tune and correct. I wouldn't sweat your methodology too much. Thanks for the inclusion. I've had it on my list for a while now to do a final review now that the campaigns have had time to mature. I'll send you my totals and worry about the posts later.

    One other thing, have you thought about using Google Spreadsheets as a way to share your raw data?

    By Blogger WE Speak, at 9:39 a.m.  

  • Wow, the battle for 5th place is close. It will be a big win for Brison if he can topple Dryden or Volpe.

    By Blogger bza, at 1:36 p.m.  

  • Vewy, vewy intewesting.

    Without any calculations on my part, those numbers feel right. The only thing that surprises me is the low number for Iggy. If that is true, then he doesn't have a hope in heck of winning.

    However, I suspect that you have Dion a couple percent too high and Rae more like 5% too high. that would put Iggy closer to 30% support, which is where I think he will be.

    By Blogger Jason Cherniak, at 1:52 p.m.  

  • What a lot of work, Bart! Good show!

    By Blogger John Murney , at 2:23 a.m.  

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    By Blogger TonyGuitar, at 1:35 p.m.  

  • Very impressive work!

    I don't see Iggy winning the leadership -- there is alot of opposition to him and his views on foreign relations don't jive well with many Liberals.

    I see the Liberal leadership race becoming an "Anyone-but-Iggy" affair. The question is, who'll pick up on the anti-Iggy momentum - Dion, Rae, or Kennedy?

    The only candidate I can see going over to Iggy on subsequent ballots is Scott Brison. The rest I think will go over to the Anyone-but-Iggy camp.

    By Blogger Harrap, at 2:19 p.m.  

  • Of course what you have basically outlined here is the fact that clearly nobody will win this sucker on the first ballot. That is why it will probably come down to either Kennedy or Dion because I have a hunch that Iggy and Rae have the ABI and ABR [Anybody but] mantle going against their camps. So ultimately, they would have to win on the first ballot to take it regardless of the ex-officio or fundraising leads that you have laid out in your post. Something I definitely don't see happening in this particular race. Just me though.

    By Blogger scott, at 3:17 p.m.  

  • Excellent analysis, and great discussion of your methodology. I wish any of the election prediction polls were half aa complete.

    A couple follow-up questions come to mind: where might each candidate be expected to pick up additional support, and what is the gut-check MOE.

    For example, my gut says that the Margin of Error would be on the order of about 20% or 25% of each value (e.g. Iggy 23% +- 6; MHF 1.6% +- 0.4).

    And my gut also says that with this distribution, nobody should want to play a wrong hand, trying to be a kingmaker and throwing their support to a second-place candidate instead. Which might tend to strengthen the position of the influencers among the delegates (while also remembering that although the New Liberals get their proportional vote, it's likely to be longer-standing Party Members who will be selected to actually attend for the target candidate - they may just have a more difficult time justifying loyalty to that choice).

    By Blogger Paul, at 1:15 a.m.  

  • Wikipedia endorsement page? 10% of bloggers endorsement? Caucus support at only 20%? Allow me to laugh at the methodology here. Too bad the real world won't consider this any serious.

    By Blogger Léo Bourdon, at 8:39 a.m.  

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